Costs of shipping in the Baltic Sea
Shipping is responsible for a range of various pressures affecting the marine environment, air quality and human welfare. In a new Swedish study, scientists have estimated the annual damage costs of shipping activities in the Baltic Sea to amount to €2.9 billion. When comparing the different pressures, they found that costs due to impacts on marine eutrophication (€768 million) and marine ecotoxicity (€582 million) were in the same range as the costs associated with reduced air quality (€816 million) and climate change (€737 million).
Link to the study “Valuating environmental impacts from ship emissions – The marine perspective” by E. Ytreberg, S. Åström, and E. Fridell: https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.111958