What source of air pollution is the biggest killer?
A recent study in The Lancet Public Health estimated which sources contribute most to the mortality associated with PM2.5 and NO₂ in 857 European cities. The results show great variability between the cities studied, but in general the largest contributor to PM2.5 mortality is emissions from residential sources (23%), with the agricultural sector in second place (18%), followed by industry (14%), transport (13.5%), the energy sector (10%), natural sources (9%) and shipping (5.5%). In terms of NO₂ mortality, there is one very prominent contributor, which is the transport sector, with an average contribution across all cities of 48.5%, followed by industry with an average of 15%, the energy sector with 15%, housing (10%) and shipping (10%).
The Lancet, 23 July, 2023